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新年快乐!xīn nián kuài lè 围炉庆团圆(wéi lú qìng tuán yuán)

作者:10 Seconds Class-10秒钟教室翻译/吴约翰(“看川普推特学英文”专栏作家)

火锅。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

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传统中国新年在围炉时,桌上会出现的几道菜色,想必大家都不陌生。但,我们要怎么跟外国人介绍这些传统年菜的英文与典故呢?

蘑菇博士。
蘑菇博士。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class)

透过以下图文并茂的示意图,想必您也一目了然了!

传统上,年菜多在除夕祭祖后食用,又称“年夜饭”、“团圆饭”或“围炉”。 目的是在过年前,一家团聚并共度黄历新年。

Traditionally, nián cài will be enjoyed after jì zǔ (Ancestors Worship) on the Lunar New Year’s Eve, also called nián yè fàn (Dinner on the Eve), tuán yuan fàn (Get-together Dinner), or wéi lú (Around the Pot/Table).  Having dinner on the Eve is to get family members come home before New Year and spend time together on the Lunar New Year.

拼盘

拼盘。
拼盘。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class)

拼盘是年菜常用的方式,一次可吃到多种菜色。

Pīn Pán

a popular way to present one type of nián cài, tasting an assortment of foods at once

菜色

乌鱼子、海蜇 皮、醉鸡等都是大家喜爱选用的品项。

Cài Sè

wū yú zǐ (Fish Eggs), hǎi zhé pí (Jellyfish), zuì jī (Wined Chicken) etc are favorite options of pīn pán

什么是长年菜呢?

长年菜。
长年菜。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class)
猪。
猪。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class)

过年除了大鱼大肉之外,一定会有一道长年菜。一般长年菜指的是“芥菜”,在每年年终岁末时,刚好是芥菜收成的时间,而芥菜吃起来最初有点苦味,但越煮越甘,也象征苦尽甘来。

What is Cháng Nián Cài?

Besides heavy meals during New Year’s days, cháng nián cài is a must-have dish.

cháng nián cài (Longevity Greens), referring to jiè cài (Mustard Greens), is just one of the seasonal vegetables freshly-harvested at the end of the year.

jiè cài tastes a bit bitter at the beginning, whereas it tastes sweet and delightful when cooked longer. It symbolizes kǔ jìn gān lái (After the bitter comes the sweet)

除夕应景物 chú xì yìng jǐng wù

过年多会吃与吉祥话相关谐音的食物,借此祈求来年平安顺遂。

During the Lunar New Year, foods are often consumed related to its name with the blessing words, which are pronounced the same or similar, but meant differently, in the hope of obtaining a safe and smooth new year.

火锅

火锅。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

大家围在一起吃火锅,取其团圆之意。

Huǒ Guō (Hot Pot):Everyone enjoys hot pot around the table, meaning tuán yuan (Reunion).

鱼。
鱼。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

年年有余,这道菜当天一定不能吃完。

Yú (Fish):nián nián yǒu yú (Surplus every year), so that this dish cannot be finished on the Eve dinner.

萝卜糕

萝卜糕。
萝卜糕。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

又称菜头糕,有好彩头与步步高升之意。

Luó Bo Gāo (Radish Cake):Also called cài tóu gāo, meaning hǎo cǎi tóu (Good luck and getting  promoted step by step)

糖果

俗话说:“吃甜甜,好过年。”糖果是新年必备品。

糖果。
糖果。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

Táng Guǒ (Candy):An old saying, “chī tián tián, hǎo guò nián.” Candy is a must-have on the Lunar New Year.

年糕

年糕。
年糕。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

过年必吃的应景食品,年年高升之意。

Nián Gāo (Sticky Rice Cake):A must-eat dessert on the Lunar New Year, meaning getting promoted year by year.

饺子

饺子。
饺子。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

又称元宝,财源滚滚、招财进宝之意。

Jiǎo Zi (Dumblings):Also called yuán bǎo (ancient money), meaning cái yuan gǔn gǔn  (money rolling in) or zhāo cái jìn bǎo (fortune and valuables attraction)

水果

水果。
水果。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

橘代表吉利、苹果代表平安、凤梨代表旺来。

Shuǐ Guǒ (Fruit):jú zi (Oranges) means jí lì (Good luck);píng guǒ (Apples) means píng ān (Being safe);fèng lí (Pineapples) means wàng lái (Pineapple’s pronunciation in Taiwanese) (Prosperity comes)

丸子

丸子。
丸子。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

取丸和圆字的谐音,有事事圆满的意思。

Wán Zi (Meat/Fish Balls):“yuán” pronounces “wán” in Taiwanese, so having meat/fish balls means shì shì yuán mǎn (Everything comes perfect at the end.)

鸡。
鸡。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

鸡台语同“家”,可以的话吃全鸡最好。

Jī Ròu (Chicken):“jī” pronounces “gei” in Taiwanese, meaning “jia” (home). It’s better to have a “whole chicken.”

韭菜

韭菜。
韭菜。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

长长久久,吃得时候越慢才能越长久。

Jiǔ Cài (Chinese Leek):cháng cháng jiǔ jiǔ (Good luck can last long.) Good fortune and blessings last long, only when you eat it slowly.

长年菜

长年菜。
长年菜。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

即芥菜,本来很苦但越煮越甘,象征苦尽甘来。

Cháng Nián Cài (Mustard Greens):It refers to jiè cài. It tastes bitter at the beginning, whereas it becomes sweet aftering long cooking, meaning “after suffering comes sweet reward.”

发菜

发菜。
发菜。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

发音同发财,目前是保育食材,已禁采。

Fǎ Cài (Fat Choy/Black Moss):It sounds similar as “fā cái” (fortune making). Currently it has been an environmentally-protected plant, forbidden to harvest.

最后,要跟大家介绍,这个过年必备,也是最重要的,就是:

假笑面具

假笑面具。
假笑面具。(10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class提供)

过年面对亲戚烦人的围攻,戴上即可解围。

Jiǎ Xiào Miàn Jù (Fake Smiling Mask):To escape from relatives’ overwhelming inquiries, putting it on may be a good solution.

你们闭嘴我就新年快乐了啦!呵呵!

I will be having a “Happy New Year” only if you close your mouth. Ha Ha~

——脸书“10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class ”同意授权图像刊登 (更多内容,请搜寻脸书“10秒钟教室-10 Seconds Class ”)◇

责任编辑:王愉悦

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