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赵亮:中国为什么不敢加入国际刑事法院

赵亮

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【大纪元9月4日讯】国际刑事法院是一个独立的常设法院﹐有权对那些严重违犯国际人道法规﹐犯下战争罪﹑危害人类罪﹑和灭绝种族罪的个人进行侦查和审判。与设在“黑葛”的国际法庭(the International Court of Justice in The Hague)不同之处在于﹐国际刑事法院可以审判犯罪个人﹐而国际法庭只处理国家之间的官司。国际刑事法院的建立依据是“罗马公约”。该公约由联合国外交大会在1998年7月17日于罗马通过。

自今年(2002年)7月1日﹐国际刑事法院正式生效并从联合国分离出来。这一天标志着从此以后发生的灭绝种族罪﹑战争罪﹑和危害人类罪﹐国际刑事法院有权对被指控责任者进行侦查和审判。国际刑事法院常设于荷兰的海牙﹐目前(2000年8月)已有78个成员国。

中国积极参与法院筹备委员会的会议﹐但是却不肯签署罗马公约。2002年7月10日在安理会上的一个声明中﹐中国代表声称﹐“尽管中国尚未成为国际刑事法院的成员国﹐我们支持国际刑事法院的独立﹑公正﹑和全面性。我们一直支持国际刑事法院的筹建﹐而且会继续紧密观察其运作。”

为什么中国不肯签署罗马公约而拒绝成为国际刑事法院的成员国呢﹖原因其实很简单。如果我们把罗马公约中关于“危害人类罪”的定义与江泽民三年来对法轮功的所作所为进行比较﹐不难看出江泽民是第一个应当被国际刑事法院审判的。而且江泽民对法轮功的犯罪还在继续﹐他当然不敢签署罗马公约。可以百分之百地预测﹐只要江泽民一天还在掌控大权﹐中国就一天不可能签署罗马公约。

国际刑事法院审判的依据就是罗马公约。此公约(包括中文在内的多种语言的译文版)可以在互联网上找到﹐网址是﹕http://www.preventgenocide.org/law/icc/statute/languages.htm 。

为了方便读者﹐罗马公约的第六条“灭绝种族罪”和第七条“危害人类罪”附于此文后面。江泽民在“消灭”法轮功时犯下的种种罪行﹐包括 1)谋杀(至今记录在案的已有460名以上的法轮功学员在这场迫害中丧生)﹐ 2)奴役(数以万计的法轮功学员被关押于劳教所被迫做奴隶式的劳动)﹐3)监禁(法轮功学员被判刑﹑送劳教所﹑甚至关进精神病院)﹐4)酷刑(在洗脑班﹐在拘留所﹐在劳教所﹐对法轮功学员施以酷刑的现像非常普遍)﹐ 5)强奸(有数份报告记录了在劳教所管教的唆使下犯人强奸女法轮功学员的事例)﹐以及6)其他不人道行为例如洗脑﹐都够的上是罗马公约中定义的危害人类罪。事实上﹐江泽民用酷刑和杀戮来达到其“消灭”法轮功的目的﹐已经在犯下灭绝种族罪。

附﹕罗马公约第六﹑第七条文

第六条
灭绝种族罪
为了本规约的目的,“灭绝种族罪”是指蓄意全部或局部消灭某一民族、族裔、种族或宗教团体而实施的下列任何一种行为:
1. 杀害该团体的成员;
2. 致使该团体的成员在身体上或精神上遭受严重伤害;
3. 故意使该团体处于某种生活状况下,毁灭其全部或局部的生命;
4. 强制施行办法,意图防止该团体内的生育;
5. 强迫转移该团体的儿童至另一团体。

第七条
危害人类罪
(一) 为了本规约的目的,“危害人类罪”是指在广泛或有系统地针对任何平民人口进行的攻击中,在明知这一攻击的情况下,作为攻击的一部分而实施的下列任何一种行为:
1. 谋杀;
2. 灭绝;
3. 奴役;
4. 驱逐出境或强行迁移人口;
5. 违反国际法基本规则,监禁或以其他方式严重剥夺人身自由;
6. 酷刑;
7. 强奸、性奴役、强迫卖淫、强迫怀孕、强迫绝育或严重程度相当的任何其他形式的性暴力;
8. 基于政治、种族、民族、族裔、文化、宗教、第三款所界定的性别,或根据公认为国际法不容的其他理由,对任何可以识别的团体或集体进行迫害,而且与任何一种本款提及的行为或任何一种本法院管辖权内的犯罪结合发生;
9. 强迫人员失踪;
10. 种族隔离罪;
11. 故意造成重大痛苦,或对人体或身心健康造成严重伤害的其他性质相同的不人道行为。

(二) 为了第一款的目的:
1. “针对任何平民人口进行的攻击”是指根据国家或组织攻击平民人口的政策,或为了推行这种政策,针对任何平民人口多次实施第一款所述行为的行为过程;
2. “灭绝”包括故意施加某种生活状况,如断绝粮食和药品来源,目的是毁灭部分的人口;
3. “奴役”是指对一人行使附属于所有权的任何或一切权力,包括在贩卖人口,特别是贩卖妇女和儿童的过程中行使这种权力;
4. “驱逐出境或强行迁移人口”是指在缺乏国际法容许的理由的情况下,以驱逐或其他胁迫行为,强迫有关的人迁离其合法留在的地区;
5. “酷刑”是指故意致使在被告人羁押或控制下的人的身体或精神遭受重大痛苦;但酷刑不应包括纯因合法制裁而引起的,或这种制裁所固有或附带的痛苦;
6. “强迫怀孕”是指以影响任何人口的族裔构成的目的,或以进行其他严重违反国际法的行为的目的,非法禁闭被强迫怀孕的妇女。本定义不得以任何方式解释为影响国内关于妊娠的法律;
7. “迫害”是指违反国际法规定,针对某一团体或集体的特性,故意和严重地剥夺基本权利;
8. “种族隔离罪”是指一个种族团体对任何其他一个或多个种族团体,在一个有计划地实行压迫和统治的体制化制度下,实施性质与第一款所述行为相同的不人道行为,目的是维持该制度的存在;
9. “强迫人员失踪”是指国家或政治组织直接地,或在其同意、支持或默许下,逮捕、羁押或绑架人员,继而拒绝承认这种剥夺自由的行为,或拒绝透露有关人员的命运或下落,目的是将其长期置于法律保护之外。

(三) 为了本规约的目的,“性别”一词应被理解为是指社会上的男女两性。“性别”一词仅反映上述意思。
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以下为本文英文译文﹕

WHY CHINA NOT SIGN IN THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is a permanent court that has the power to investigate and bring to justice individuals who commit the most serious violations of international humanitarian law, namely war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. Unlike the International Court of Justice in The Hague (a.k.a., the World Court), in which only states can bring suits against one another, the ICC will have the capacity to try individuals. The ICC was created on the basis of the Rome Statute, a treaty adopted in Rome on July 17, 1998 at the United Nations diplomatic conference.

On July 1, 2002 ICC came into force and officially separated from the United Nations. This date marked the beginning of the Court’s jurisdiction over individuals accused of genocide, war crimes, or other crimes against humanity.
China actively participates in the Preparatory Commission meetings, but China has not signed the Rome Statute. In a statement at the Security Council on 10 July 2002, a representative of China remarked, “Although China is not yet a state party to the International Criminal Court, we support the independence, impartiality, and competence of the ICC that enjoys universality. We have continued to actively participate in the establishment of the ICC and will continue to follow closely its operation.”

Why China does not want to ratify the Rome Statue and become a state party to the International Criminal Court? The reason is very simple. If one compares the definition for the crimes against humanity with what Jiang Zemin did to Falun Gong practitioners in the past three years, it is easy to find that Jiang Zemin should be the first person to put on tried in ICC. We can predict that China will not ratify the Rome Statue as long as Jiang Zemin is still in control of the power.

Rome Statue is the “Law” according to which ICC conducts its trial. Rome Statue can be found on the internet http://www.preventgenocide.org/law/icc/statute/languages.htm in several language translations. For the ease of readers, Article 6: Genocide and Article 7: Crimes Against Humanity are attached at the end of this article. The crimes Jiang Zemin has committed in his effort to “eradicate” Falun Gong, including 1) murder (it has documented more than 460 practitioners lost life due to the persecution), 2) Enslavement (tens of thousands Falun Gong practitioners have been sent into labor camps and forced to do slave labor), 3) imprisonment (practitioners have been jailed, sent to slave labor camps, or been locked up in mental hospitals), 4) torture (wide spread physical torture in “transform” classes, in detention centers, and in labor camps), 5) rape (several reports have documented rape of female practitioners by inmates who were encouraged by guards in the labor camps), and 6) other types of inhumane acts such as brainwashing, all rise to the degree of the Crime Against Humanity as defined in Rome Statue. The fact that Jiang Zemin using torture and killing to eradicate Falun Gong indicates he is committing the Genocide.

Article 6: Genocide

For the purpose of this Statute, “genocide” means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Article 7: Crimes against humanity
1. For the purpose of this Statute, “crime against humanity” means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:
(a) Murder;
(b) Extermination;
(c) Enslavement;
(d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population;
(e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;
(f) Torture;
(g) Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, or any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;
(h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;
(i) Enforced disappearance of persons;
(j) The crime of apartheid;
(k) Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.

2. For the purpose of paragraph 1:
(a) “Attack directed against any civilian population” means a course of conduct involving the multiple commission of acts referred to in paragraph 1 against any civilian population, pursuant to or in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit such attack;
(b) “Extermination” includes the intentional infliction of conditions of life, inter alia the deprivation of access to food and medicine, calculated to bring about the destruction of part of a population;
(c) “Enslavement” means the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children;
(d) “Deportation or forcible transfer of population” means forced displacement of the persons concerned by expulsion or other coercive acts from the area in which they are lawfully present, without grounds permitted under international law;
(e) “Torture” means the intentional infliction of severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, upon a person in the custody or under the control of the accused; except that torture shall not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to, lawful sanctions;
(f) “Forced pregnancy” means the unlawful confinement of a woman forcibly made pregnant, with the intent of affecting the ethnic composition of any population or carrying out other grave violations of international law. This definition shall not in any way be interpreted as affecting national laws relating to pregnancy;
(g) “Persecution” means the intentional and severe deprivation of fundamental rights contrary to international law by reason of the identity of the group or collectivity;
(h) “The crime of apartheid” means inhumane acts of a character similar to those referred to in paragraph 1, committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime;
(i) “Enforced disappearance of persons” means the arrest, detention or abduction of persons by, or with the authorization, support or acquiescence of, a State or a political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of those persons, with the intention of removing them from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time.
3. For the purpose of this Statute, it is understood that the term “gender” refers to the two sexes, male and female, within the context of society. The term “gender” does not indicate any meaning different from the above.

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2002-09-04 2:53 AM
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